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Using Philosophy in
Everyday Life

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350 years before Christ, Aristotle produced profound reflexions about friendship and its place in our lives, in his Nicomachean Ethics

In poverty and other misfortunes of life, true friends are a sure refuge
Aristotle, 384-322 b.C., Greek philosopher, Nicomachean Ethics

Friendship is a virtue, and the most necessary thing.
Aristotle, 384-322 b.C., Greek philosopher, Nicomachean Ethics

Friendship is one soul inhabiting two bodies.
Aristotle, 384-322 b.C., Greek philosopher, in Diogenes Laertius
Lives of Eminent Philosophers

Nobody would choose to live without friends even if he had all the other good things of life.
Aristotle, 384-322 b.C., Greek philosopher, Nicomachean Ethic

Friendship: from Aristotle to present



Epicurus (341-270 b. C.) is the great philosopher of friendship. His reflexions are still relevant today.

Friendship dances around the world bidding us all to awaken to the recognition of happiness.
Epicuro, 341-270 a. C., Greek Philosopher, Vatican Sayings

The whole world offers a common house to those who prize friendship: the Earth.
Epicurist saying found in the portico of a roman farm of the second century

Of all the means which wisdom gives us to ensure happiness throughout ours lives, by far the most important is friendship.
Epicurus, 341-270 a. C., Greek Philosopher, Principal Doctrines

The noble man is chiefly concerned with wisdom and friendship; of these, the former is a mortal good, the latter an immortal one.
Epicurus, 341-270 a. C., Greek Philosopher, Vatican Sayings


Friendship: from Aristotle to present


More recent thinkers point out the huge importance of friendship in our lives. Friendship is a treasure. Without it, life is a desert. The meaning of life is profoundly sustained by our webs of friendship.

Hell is all in the word solitude.
Victor Hugo, 1802-1885, French writer, in E. Morin Method V

Of all the heavenly treasures that mortal men commend, what trusty treasure in the world can countervail a friend?
N. Grimald, 1519-1562, English poet, Of  friendship

redoubles joys and cut grieves in halves.
F. Bacon, 1561-1626, English philosopher and politician, Essays

A crowd is not company, faces are but a gallery of pictures, and talk but a tinkling cymbal, where there is no love.
F. Bacon, 1561-1626, English philosopher and politician, Essays

Friendship: from Aristotle to present

See also:
Poems about life
Life and Love
Philosophies of Life

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Fragment of Indian painting

Friendship: from Aristotle to the present

Friendship has been a philosophical theme in the classics. Aristotle considered it highly, placing friendship above love, which he tends to depreciate and connect to eroticism.

For Aristotle, friendship was an exercise between «equals», a virtue shared by men belonging to the elite of Greek society. It had little of brotherhood and solidarity, and involved a restraint, abstract and utilitarian face («Between friends, the rule is that each receives and returns in equal degree, or in a very similar one», Aristotle said).

To Aristotle, friendship was also a somewhat egoistic issue: «Each man has in himself his best friend, and, as a consequence, should love himself above everything». Aristotle’s friendship was also restraint: it didn’t include unknown people, foreigners or women, who he considered «limited by nature».

We can, of course, understand, or try to understand, Aristotle. We must consider the period, and its preconceived opinions. And accept that friendship, in its most current and broad sense can be rather different from love or brotherhood.

Notwithstanding, just a few dozen years after Aristotle, Epicurus established different and much more advanced concepts of friendship. Epicurus inscribed friendship in a philosophy of life where complicity, solidarity, sympathy or shared pleasure were important elements.

Epicurus’s friendship is much closer to the modern concept of friendship, and was  widely practised for centuries by the many epicurist communities spread throughout the Roman empire, without the exclusions conceived by Aristotle.

As with everything that is human, friendship contains our ambivalence, our contradictions. Friendship is often betrayed or crushed. It is one of its contents. Anyway, friendship exists. We need it, we create it, with different meanings and different demands.

In a broader sense, friendship nowadays is equivalent to communication, sympathy for the other, complicity, solidarity. In a current vision, friendship doesn’t involve a deep and ideal relationship, though our inner demands may place it well ahead of circumstantial relationships and common circles of acquaintances.

And we may, in certain circumstances, think as Sartre, and say that «hell are the others», or as Benjamin Franklin, that «there are three faithful friends - an old wife, an old dog, and ready Money».

But, in their very essence, arguments devaluing friendship are often the reflexion of transitory moments of caustic and disenchanted feelings about man and life; they do not nullify our persistent demand for friendship and the importance and necessity we confer in it.

Friendship is as indispensable today as in the past. In a world such as ours, with such a wide set of mercantile and abstract relationships, space for friendship, with the existential enrichment it grants, is essential to us.

We are beings dependent on affections, dependent on the other, on fellowship, on brotherhood, on solidarity, on sympathy. We don’t live only by bread. Our “I” only exists and defines itself through others, as their reflexion («If there isn’t other I, there is no I», said Tchuang-Tzu). Without the warmth of friendship and love, life would be insupportable, Aristotle reminds us.







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